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The non-coaxiality between the major principal stress and the principal strain increment directions is found to be an important feature of granular materials.A hollow cylinder apparatus is used to investigate the non-coaxiality between the axes of the major principal stress and principal strain increment and the effects of different facters on the degree of non-coaxiality.In the first series of tests,the sand was isotropically consolidated before being sheared with the fixed principal stress direction.In the other two series of tests,the sand specimens were isotropically consolidated and then sheared by rotating the principal stress axes while the deviator stress level was either fixed (pure stress rotation) or increased continuously (combined shear loading).The evidence of non-coaxiality has been obtained from the tests.The degree of non-coaxiality is affected by the density of the specimen,the stress path followed,the stress level and the material particle properties.
The main content of this book includes literature review,experimental methodology,monotonic loading tests,pure rotation tests,combined loading tests,summary and conclusions.
The book's main audiences are the researchers,designers and constructers engaged in geotechnical engineering,as well as readers interested in the study of geotechnical engineering.